Of the , persons who have lost their homes, about 15, were in camps in the Goma environs. Family kits, providing household items, were important and greatly needed, but everything in the kit could be bought in Goma. Car traffic was held up for two hours by the border guards. A well co-ordinated relief programme was associated with a steep decline in death rates by the second month of the crisis. Yet the aid community in Goma continued to hold to some moral high ground about giving cash.
The mystery of its “column of fire” was not revealed until , when the volcanologist Haroun Tazieff climbed down into the crater below its vapour clouds to find a vast, incandescent lake of molten lava. A repeat lava flow event and evacuation, followed by a rapid return to Goma before activity had declined, as occurred in January, would be especially hazardous, with the possible danger of phreato-magmatic explosions from renewed lava flows. Why, then, did agencies continue to supply these items, even when it was obvious that they had become currency, and a debased one at that, as the continuing supply of new sheets and pots reduced their sale value to virtually zero and impoverished the people who normally sold them? These are associated with large ash emissions, which the prevailing winds blow towards the west. It is likely that people will ignore warnings and will wait for an eruption to occur before taking action.
This is the first time that a lava flow has impacted on a city and made such a large number of people homeless.
Probably not all of this would have undergone chlorination because the chlorination sites were not all up and running until 23 January. This reduced the access to the area for emergency supplies, which had to be brought in by road from Sstudy or Bukavu, which have the closest airports.
The very fluid lava flows were not considered to be a major threat to Goma. Warning of magma rising beneath Goma or Lake Kivu should be feasible, using a telemeter seismic monitoring network.
Thus, the lava flows, by displacing thousands from their homes and causing overcrowding, could have indirectly increased the already high level of risk to health from diarrhoeal diseases by adding to the potential for contamination of the lake with sewage from the overflowing latrines. A preliminary study of the health impact of the eruption was undertaken soon after the event. Volcanologists have suggested the following future eruption scenarios, which should be considered in the light of the above findings in the January eruption:.
The situation nykragongo exacerbated by the lava on which Goma was built, which made digging latrines impossible. In the following hours the fracture system and the eruption of lava propagated down slope for 20 km.
Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo Pages 1 – 3 – Text Version | FlipHTML5
Lava continued to move along the middle of the main flow next day, although the edges had solidified. This is because the evacuation of populations is fundamental to mitigation in volcanic crises, but it is also usually a poorly managed process, even in developed countries.
Another important aspect, in the longer term, is mitigating risk by planning the future development of Goma in such a way as to minimize the impact of a future eruption. The potential for carbon dioxide emissions has been known for a long time, as there are numerous dry gas vents in the area, especially near Lake Kivu, that emit carbon dioxide, and occasionally lead to deaths in humans. As far as the present hazard situation in Goma is concerned, the following observations can be made, pending a full hazard assessment:.
Lower down in the Munigi area, the eruption appears to have been more gas driven.
The case for cash: Goma after the Nyiragongo eruption – ODI HPN
In the first month of the influx, an estimated 50, refugees had died. We’ll assume you’re ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish.
The humanitarian crisis in the occupied Palestinian territory: The draft plan allows for the relocation of betweento1. The eruption began without warning at Vulnerability assessment is a method of evaluating environmental hazards for the factors that amplify their impacts on populations or the environment.
This matter is addressed in the nyiraogngo section. The onset of the eruption was preceded by almost 8 hours of very low seismicity and it started without any detectable preceding signal at local time. Goma airport cannot be relied upon for the delivery of humanitarian supplies in a future eruption as it may be covered by a lava flow.
Case study of a Volcanic eruption : Mt. Nyiragongo
The fear of giving cash New aid workers are warned by older and wiser colleagues never to give cash to beneficiaries. This is one of dtudy world’s most important volcanic crises. An ash sample from the 22 January crater explosion was kindly supplied by the GVO and sent for analysis. Occupants have to pay to have the pits emptied. Eventually, some of this was done.
Location Maps – Country maps for your reports and presentations. This flow acted as a barrier to the return of the population from the east. Both the main supply pumping stations for the city, Lac Kivu and Turquoise, were out of action because the power supplies had also been disrupted by the eruption.
An adequate lead time for evacuation therefore includes a sufficient period of warning to allow the NGOs and international agencies to gear up for nyiragohgo emergency, which will be longer than the warning time need for the population to leave under an evacuation plan.
There are three principal volcano scenarios volxano in the draft plan that will need to be expanded upon in more detail as part of the Risk Assessment meeting. Often concealed by cloud, Nyiragongo has been reluctant to yield its secrets.